Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, individual communications)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, individual communications)

(20) The definition of having ‘brother’, aha for the BT, enjoys in addition been augmented, even though this mode is additionally utilized in Turoyo. Hertevin enjoys both ?aha and you will ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

On top of that, external NENA, i have most other terms and conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) You to instead strange goods that’s attested throughout NENA dialects except Sanandaj Christian (and therefore most likely simply a chance pit throughout the research) try aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends this particular word derives about sources ql ‘to feel crooked’. All the languages utilize the setting aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you can Tisqopa ( wapa?)aqIlta.

(22) Various other keyword discussed from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty two, 134) are baxta ‘woman’, with supplanted brand new Syriac atta in most NENA, although not during the Turoyo or Mandaic. That it phrase generally seems to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is interesting to notice you to an uneven plural survives in the multiple dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you can Halabja inse.

(23) An unexpected creativity pointed out by Noldeke (1868, 59) is rxata, equal to Syriac rhat. The change out of h so you’re able to x within one word was included in all the NENA languages the spot where the verb try attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Other unanticipated creativity ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, that takes the forms zda?a good, zdaya, and zdala throughout the certain dialects. Macuch and you will Panoussi (1974, 50) bring a potential derivation regarding Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Forms into the infixed d can be found in all the newest NENA languages where the resources is actually attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not totally all of one’s distinguishing top features of NENA can be found in a choice of Turoyo or Mandaic

I believe that the a lot more than makes it obvious the NENA dialects display a wide range of unique characteristics which are discovered none in the previous attested forms of Aramaic neither regarding most other traditions dialects. These features diversity over the domain names out-of phonology, morphology, as well as the lexicon.

Specifically, all the dialects out of NENA agree in the standards 2, nine, fourteen, 15, 16, 21, and 22. All languages where you will find pointers plus acknowledge standards 20, 23, and you may twenty-four.

All but Halabja consent in conditions 8 and eleven. Requirement six is situated in all of the dialects except Halabja, Hertevin, and you will Sanandaj Christian.

Even with its internal divisions, the fresh new NENA languages mode a strikingly coherent category, separated clearly out-of both Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The positioning of these languages away from NENA pale is beyond matter.

The amount that provides try mutual across NENA is particularly impressive when we consider the tremendous differences between the many dialects. The latest influence away from other languages toward NENA could have been one another strong and you will wide, in addition to level of common intelligibility ranging from languages could be extremely brief. The countless mutual designs dispute highly getting a common origin away from the fresh NENA dialects, either in an individual dialect or even in a team of closely relevant languages. Meanwhile, we could detect a handful of important bundles regarding isoglosses and that depict the fresh new boundaries off dialect communities.

a) Brand new dialect regarding Halabja does not show specific important designs which are found owing to all remainder of the languages. It generally does not form good CCiC-ce preterite away from intransitive verbs (8), this has no b(it)- future marker (10), and contains no 3rd people just one copula having step 1 (11). This is probably the most simple division ranging from languages of NENA. It means your leftover languages function a team by which innovations spread if you are Halabja stayed unchanged from the him or her.

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